What is Artificial Intelligence?
AI is the process of simulating human intelligence in machine in other words machine can be programed to think like human and can also mimic human action. Machine showing traits of AI makes rational decision based on logic or learning from past experiences. A subset of Artificial Intelligence is Machine Learning. Machine Learning or ML is a technique within AI world that enables computer to improve task execution by using results of previous executions. Deep Learning is a technique that enables automatic learning using huge amount of data. These data are mostly unstructured such as text, images or video.
AI can be divided into two categories: weak and strong. Weak AI applications carry out one specific job for example Amazon' Alexa, Apple Siri or other voice assistant. Strong AI on the other hand performs more complex and complicated tasks. Example of strong AI is self driving cars. Strong AI is sometime called as full AI or Artificial General Intelligence. Machine having strong AI will demonstrate self-awareness and consciousness. Achieving AGI is a long term goal for AI.
Artificial Intelligence timelines.
In 1955, AI became part of academic discipline. It has seen several wave of optimism and disappointment since then. The time period when AI research and development almost stopped is called AI Winter. There were two major winters between 1974-1980 and 1987-1993.
More detailed timeline of AI can be found here.